Thermal and Metallurgical Effects Associated with Gas Carburized and Induction Hardened Components

K. Palaniradja*, N. Alagumurthi, V. Soundararajan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry-605014, India.

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© 2010 Palaniradja et al;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry-605014, India; Tel: 914132655281-287, Ext. 252,259; Fax: 914132655101; E-mail:


Dimensional distortion occurs due to the thermal and transformation stresses formed during the heat treatment processes. Taguchi and Factorial design of experiment concepts were applied to optimize the operating variables involved in the gas carburising and induction hardening processes so as to minimize the geometrical distortions. Experimental data obtained for the materials EN353, EN351, AISI 4140, and AISI 9255 were analyzed by Response graph method and Signal to Noise method. Even though, EN 351 and EN 353 are having the same carbon percentage, EN 353 gives minimal dimensional and volume changes because of the presence of three alloying elements namely cobalt, molybdenum and nickel. Analysis by variance (ANOVA) results indicated that the furnace temperature and quenching time in the gas carburising process were the variables which had more influence on distortion. The percentage deviations between the experimental and predicted results for the runout and helix variations were in the range of 7 to 10%.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Metallurgical effects, surface hardness, helix variation, ANOVA.